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About Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library

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Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library covers the major strains and new directions in religious questioning that have often altered the very framework of given traditions. In addition to studying scholars' ideas separately, researchers can explore broader schools of thought to examine how different theories, denominations, faiths, and political and cultural groups have intersected, differed, and influenced one another. Once completed, Volume I will provide extensive coverage of Protestantism, Catholicism, Evangelicalism, Lutheranism, liberation theology, systematic theology, dialectical theology, theocentric theology, Death of god theology, feminist theology, Hispanic theology, animal rights, and Christian atheism.

The collection reflects the increasingly global and pluralistic character of religious scholarship by including voices from all religions including Islam, Judaism, Christianity—and at a later stage Eastern Religions—that have generated meaningful interfaith dialogue. It also incorporates works from members of previously marginalized groups, among them key feminist theologians and scholars.

About Volume I

Twentieth Century Religious Thought: Volume I, Christianity currently includes 119,109 pages, comprising 333 books and 3382 items from the Reinhold Niebuhr Papers. For those who own Digital Karl Barth Library, an additional 91 sources, 46,974 pages are also searchable.

Volume I on Christianity currently features more than 250 authors from Africa, Europe, Latin America, and North America, including:

  • Donald Bloesch
  • Dietrich Bonhoeffer
  • Leonardo Boff
  • Sergius Bulgakov
  • Rudolf Bultmann
  • Helder Camara
  • Mary Daly
  • Ivone Gebara
  • Henri de Lubac
  • Gustavo Gutièrrez
  • Stanley Hauerwas
  • Ada Maria Isasi-Diaz
  • Bernard Lonergan
  • Dmitry Sergeyeyevic Merezhkovsky
  • John Milbank
  • Jurgen Moltmann
  • Mercy Amba Oduyoye
  • Wolfhart Pannenberg
  • Pope Benedict XVI
  • Rosemary Radford Ruether
  • Albert Schweitzer
  • Jon Sobrino
  • Dorothee Sölle
  • Ernst Troeltsch
  • Hans Urs von Balthasar
  • Adolf von Harnack
  • Rowan Williams
  • John Howard Yoder

Future releases will provide more works from the key 20th century thinkers and content in original languages other than English and German, including French and Spanish.

Editorial Board and Partners

An editorial board advises on the selection of materials. Experts currently include:

Diane Apostolos-Cappadona, Christian studies professor at Georgetown University

Zayn Kassam, associate professor of religious studies at Pomona College

Yvonne Haddad, professor of the History of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations at the Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown University
Samir Mamoud, Lecturer, American University of Beirut

Rosemary Radford Ruether, professor of Feminist Theology at Claremont School of Theology and Claremont Graduate University
David L. Stubbs, professor of Ethics and Theology at Western Theological Seminary David Thomas, professor of Christianity and Islam/Nadir Dinshaw professor of Inter Religious Relations at University
of Birmingham

The collection incorporates content from the field's leading partners including Christian Kaiser Verlag, Fortress Press, Gütersloher Verlagshause, Ignatius Press, Oxford University Press, Westminster John Knox Press, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Wipf and Stock.

About the series/future volumes

Twentieth Century Religious Thought, Volume I: Christianity is the first in a five-volume series that includes The Digital Karl Barth Library, volume II: Islam and volume III: Judaism. It will grow to include volume IV: Eastern Religions. Upon completion, it will include more than 500,000 pages of seminal texts.

Developed under the guidance of specialists in the field, the series provides a comprehensive and rare assemblage of important and unique materials, the essential works documenting religious thinking in the 20th century.

Key concepts and theories, such as ethics, truth, emptiness, doctrine, and reincarnation, will be explored and examined across religions, while specific dogmas and philosophies will also be studied in-depth. Students and scholars will experience the conversations within and among schools of thought through the key authors who have shaped the conversations and understandings.

Following the launch of Volume I: Christianity in 2013, Volume II: Islam in 2015, Volume III: Judaism in 2017, Twentieth Century Religious Thought will grow by 2018 to include:

Volume IV: Eastern Religions—100,000 pages of printed works and archival material documenting the key works and practices of these influential Eastern religions. Most titles will be in English, with selected titles in Mandarin, Tibetan, and Roman languages.

Once completed, the five volumes of Twentieth Century Religious Thought Library will constitute a major resource on all aspects of theological thought, dialogue, and experience across cultures, laying the foundation for historical and contemporary understandings.

Content suggestions

If you would like to recommend additional content for inclusion in the database, you can contact the editor at

Sensitivity Statement and Takedown Policy

Materials contained on the Alexander Street platform include historical content that may contain offensive language, negative stereotypes or inaccurate representations. Alexander Street does not endorse the views expressed in such materials, but believes they should be made available in context to enable scholarly comparison, analysis and research.

In making material available online, Alexander Street and our content partners act in good faith. To the best of our knowledge, content contained within these collections has been cleared for publication by the appropriate rights holders and has not been placed under any restrictions for privacy, cultural or other sensitivities. If you have found material for which you believe you hold the copyright without proper attribution, which contravenes privacy laws, or which is a breach of the protocols determining accession provision for heritage materials which reflect indigenous history, culture, language or perspective, please contact us in writing at Please include with your query:

  • 1. Your full name
  • 2. Your contact information
  • 3. URL to the content in question
  • 4. The reason for your inquiry

Upon receipt of inquiries, the following steps will be undertaken:

  • 1. Inquirer will receive confirmation of receipt.
  • 2. Alexander Street will contact the holding source and/or any related copyright holder to notify of the inquiry.
  • 3. Alexander Street will make all possible efforts to resolve the takedown request quickly and to the satisfaction of all parties involved. Possible outcomes include: Access to content remains unchanged on the Alexander Street platform; Access to content is modified on the Alexander Street platform; Access to the content is removed from the Alexander Street platform.

Alexander Street strives to provide the broadest possible online access to content where permissions have been granted by the known rights holders and/or the content holding institution. Permanent access restrictions will be considered only as an exceptional response.


Many individuals have contributed to this project since its inception and we want to acknowledge the great contributions of all.

Special thanks go to:

  • Gareth Bish
  • Pat Carlson
  • Charles Cooney
  • Graham Dimmock
  • Nathalie Duval
  • Andrea Eastman-Mullins
  • Michelle Eldridge
  • Sara Gibney
  • Mike Kangal
  • Isabel Lacerda
  • Arvilla Mastromarino
  • Laura Mills
  • Sergei Surba
  • Stephen Rhind-Tutt
  • Duane Rogers
  • Kathleen Saylor
  • Miroslav Styblo
  • Will Whalen